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Clad Metal Specialties Inc.

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Clad Metals Glossary

Clad Metals

AGE HARDENING:
(Precipitation Hardening) A process of increasing the hardness and strength by the precipitation of particles of a phase from a supersaturated solid solution alloy. The hardening cycle usually consists of heating or annealing at a temperature sufficiently high to maintain solid solution, rapid cooling, or quenching to retain the supersaturated solid solution anneal to effect the precipitation.

ANNEALING:
A process involving heating and cooling designed to effect: 1) softening of a cold-worked structure by recrystallizing or grain growth or both; 2) softening of an age-hardening alloy or causing a nearly complete precipitation of the second phase in relatively coarse form; 3) softening of certain age-hardenable alloys by dissolving the second phase and cooling rapidly enough to obtain a supersaturated solution; 4) relief of residual stress.

BONDING:
In the clad metals industry this refers to the initial step in the manufacturing process where ultra clean and base materials are fed simultaneously into a modified rolling mill where they become metallurgically joined. The joining of clad to base metal is called bonding.

BURR:
Is the thin ridge of roughness, left by a cutting operation such as slitting, shearing, blanking or sawing.

CAMBER:
(Edgewise Curvation) The lateral departure of the edge from a straight line, which may be unidirectional or reversing; in the latter case, sometimes called snaking.

CLAD METAL:
A sophisticated composite of two or more metals, effectively combining the best qualities of the different metals - frequently at a lower cost than that for a solid metal and always conserving on precious metal usage.

COIL SET:
(Longitudinal Curl) A unidirectional departure from longitudinal flatness.

COLD WORKING:
The process of changing the form or cross-section of a piece of metal at a temperature below the softening or recrystallization point, but commonly at or about room temperature. It includes rolling, drawing, pressing and stretching.

CROWN:
The variation in thickness across the product from edge to center or edge to edge

DISH:
The transverse departure of the concave surface of the strip from a straight line from edge to edge.

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY:
A measure of the efficiency with which atoms in a metal transmit electrons, i.e. a metals ability to convey an electric current. Usually referenced to OFHC (Oxygen-Free High-Conductivity) copper.

ELONGATION:
The permanent extension of a specimen which has been stretched to rupture in a tension test. The percentage elongation is an indication of ductility.

FLATNESS:
The degree to which a surface of a flat product approaches a plane.

GRAIN:
A solid polyhedral (or many sided) crystal consisting of groups of atoms bonded together in a regular geometric pattern. In mill practice grains are usually determined microscopally, on an etched plane surface of the metal.

GRAIN SIZE:
The average diameter of grains, usually determined microscopically, on an etched plane surface of the metal.

HARDNESS:
The resistance of metal to plastic deformation by indentation. The most common method of measurement is Rockwell. Other methods are Brinell, Scleroscope, Tukon and Vickers.

ORANGE PEEL SURFACE:
The surface roughness resulting from working metal of large grain size. The surface is similar in texture to an orange peel.

ROLLING:
The process of passing metal between rolls under pressure to reduce its cross-section.

SINTER:
Securing the bond at elevated temperatures where diffusion causes the metal atoms of the bonded components to intermingle.

SKIVING:
A continuous machining using a form tool that cuts a trough in the surface of base metal strip stock into which the cladding metal is inlayed and subsequently bonded.

SOLDER REFLOW:
A process which produces solder bonded to a base metal in a specific location. Parts fabricated from this material can therefore be solder assembled simply by applying flux and heat.

TEMPER:
The condition produced in a metal by thermal and/or mechanical treatment resulting in characteristic structure and mechanical properties.

This technical information has been contributed by
Clad Metal Specialties Inc.

Click here to find suppliers


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