Casting is a process in which molten metal is poured or injected and allowed to solidify in a suitably shaped mold cavity. During or after cooling, the cast part is removed from the mold and then processed for delivery.
Casting processes and cast-material technologies vary from simple to highly complex. Material and process selection depends on the part's complexity and function, the product's quality specifications, and the projected cost level.
The name gray iron comes from the characteristic gray color of the metal on a fractured surface. Gray cast irons are used in structural steel applications that do not require impact resistance and high tensile strength: engine blocks, cylinder heads, housings, manifolds, hydraulic valve bodies, and other components having complex design. Gray cast irons are also used in manufacturing components requiring vibration damping characteristics and resistance to heat checking and heat shock: clutch plates, brake drums, ingot and pig molds, machine tool members, etc.
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